## Friday, February 24, 2017

### Badass

An article in GQ India with some tidbits about the "Badass history" of Royal Enfield. I wish they had more detail of that first figure showing the map of the factory.

## Wednesday, February 22, 2017

### Gravity as the dimensional reduction of a theory of forms in six or seven dimensions

Tuesday, February 21st

PDF of the talk (5M)

Audio+Slides [.mp4 16MB]

by Jorge Pullin, Louisiana State University

-->

**Kirill Krasnov, University of Nottingham****Title: 3D/4D gravity as the dimensional reduction of a theory of differential forms in 6D/7D**PDF of the talk (5M)

Audio+Slides [.mp4 16MB]

by Jorge Pullin, Louisiana State University

Ordinary field theories, like Maxwell’s electromagnetism,
are physical systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom. Essentially the
values of the fields at all the points of space are the degrees of freedom.
There exist a class of field theories that are formulated as ordinary ones in
terms of fields that take different values at different points in space, but that whose equations of motion imply that
the number of degrees of freedom are finite. This makes some of them
particularly easy to quantize. A good example of this is general relativity in
two space and one time dimensions (known as 2+1 dimensions). Unlike general
relativity in four-dimensional space-time, it only has a finite number of
degrees of freedom that depend on the topology of the space-time considered.
This type of behavior tends to be generic for these types of theories and as a
consequence they are labeled Topological Field Theories (TFT). These types of
theories have encountered application in mathematics to explore geometry and
topology issues, like the construction of knot invariants, using quantum field
theory techniques. These theories have the property of not requiring any
background geometric structure to define them unlike, for instance, Maxwell
theory, that requires a given metric of space-time in order to formulate it.

Remarkably, it was shown some time ago by Plebanski, in 1977
and later further studied by Capovilla-Dell-Jacobson and Mason in 1991 that
certain four dimensional TFTs, if supplemented by additional constraints among
their variables, were equivalent to general relativity. The additional
constraints had the counterintuitive effect of adding degrees of freedom to the
theory because they modify the fields in terms of which the theory is
formulated. Formulating general relativity in this fashion leads to new
perspectives on the theory. In particular it suggests certain generalizations of general
relativity, which the talk refers to as deformations of GR.

The talk considered a series of field theories in six and
seven dimensions. The theories do not require background structures for their
definition but unlike the topological theories we mentioned before, they do
have infinitely many degrees of freedom. Then the dimensional reduction to four
dimensional of these theories was considered. Dimensional reduction is a
procedure in which one “takes a lower dimensional slice” of a higher
dimensional theory, usually by imposing some symmetry (for instance assuming
that the fields do not depend on certain coordinates). One of the first such proposals
was considered in 1919 by Kaluza and further considered later by Klein so it is
known as Kaluza-Klein theory. They considered general relativity in five
dimensions and by assuming the metric does not depend on the fifth coordinate,
were able to show that the theory behaved like four-dimensional general
relativity coupled to Maxwell’s electromagnetism and a scalar field. In the
talk it was shown that the seven dimensional theory considered, when reduced to
four dimensions, was equivalent to general relativity coupled to a scalar
field. The talk also showed that certain topological theories in four dimensions
known as BF theories (because the two variables of the theory are fields named
B and F) can be viewed as dimensional reductions from topological theories in seven
dimensions and finally that general relativity in 2+1 dimensions can be viewed
as a reduction of a six dimensional topological theory.

-->

At the moment is not clear
whether these theories can be considered as describing nature,
because it is not clear whether the additional scalar field that is predicted
is compatible with the known constraints on scalar-tensor theories.
However, these theories are useful in illuminating the structures and
dynamics of general relativity and connections to other theories.

## Tuesday, February 7, 2017

### Loop Quantum Gravity, Tensor Network, and Holographic Entanglement Entropy

Tuesday, February 7th

PDF of the talk (2M)

Audio+Slides [.mp4 18MB]

by Jorge Pullin, Louisiana State University

The cosmological constant is an extra term that was introduced into the equations of General Relativity by Einstein himself. At the time he was trying to show that if one applied the equations to the universe as a whole, they had static solutions. People did not know in those days that the universe expanded. Some say that Einstein called the introduction of this extra term his “biggest blunder” since it prevented him from predicting the expansion of the universe which was observed experimentally by Hubble a few years later. In spite of its origin, the term is allowed in the equations and the space-times that arise when one includes the term are known as de Sitter space-times in honor of the Dutch physicist who first found some of these solutions. Depending on the sign of the cosmological constant chosen, one could have de Sitter or anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-times.

It was observed in the context of string theory that if one considered quantum gravity in anti-de Sitter space-times, the theory was equivalent to a certain class of field theories known as conformal field theories (CFT) living on the boundary of the space-time. The result is not a theorem but a conjecture, known as AdS/CFT or Maldacena conjecture. It has been verified in a variety of examples. It is a remarkable result. Gravity and conformal field theories are very different in many aspects and the fact that they could be mapped to each other opens many possibilities for new insights. For instance, an important open problem in gravity is the evaporation of black holes. Although nothing can escape a black hole classically, Hawking showed that if quantum effects are taken into account, black holes radiate particles like a black body at a given temperature. The particles take away energy and the black hole shrinks, eventually evaporating completely. This raises the question of what happened to matter that went into the black hole. Quantum mechanics has a property named unitarity that states that ordinary matter cannot turn into incoherent radiation, so this raises the question of how it could happen in an evaporating black hole. In the AdS/CFT picture, since the evaporating black hole would be mapped to a conformal field theory that is unitary, that would provide a way to study quantum mechanically how matter turns into incoherent radiation.

Several authors have connected the AdS/CFT conjecture to a mathematical construction known as tensor networks that is commonly used in quantum information theory. Tensor networks have several points in common with the spin networks that are the quantum states of gravity in loop quantum gravity. This talk spells out in detail how to make a correspondence between the states of loop quantum gravity and the tensor networks, basically corresponding to a coarse graining or averaging at certain scales of the states of quantum gravity. This opens the possibility of connecting results from AdS/CFT with results in loop quantum gravity. In particular the so-called Ryu-Takahashi formula for the entropy of a region can be arrived from in the context of loop quantum gravity.

**Muxin Han, Florida Atlantic University****Loop Quantum Gravity, Tensor Network, and Holographic Entanglement Entropy**PDF of the talk (2M)

Audio+Slides [.mp4 18MB]

by Jorge Pullin, Louisiana State University

The cosmological constant is an extra term that was introduced into the equations of General Relativity by Einstein himself. At the time he was trying to show that if one applied the equations to the universe as a whole, they had static solutions. People did not know in those days that the universe expanded. Some say that Einstein called the introduction of this extra term his “biggest blunder” since it prevented him from predicting the expansion of the universe which was observed experimentally by Hubble a few years later. In spite of its origin, the term is allowed in the equations and the space-times that arise when one includes the term are known as de Sitter space-times in honor of the Dutch physicist who first found some of these solutions. Depending on the sign of the cosmological constant chosen, one could have de Sitter or anti-de Sitter (AdS) space-times.

It was observed in the context of string theory that if one considered quantum gravity in anti-de Sitter space-times, the theory was equivalent to a certain class of field theories known as conformal field theories (CFT) living on the boundary of the space-time. The result is not a theorem but a conjecture, known as AdS/CFT or Maldacena conjecture. It has been verified in a variety of examples. It is a remarkable result. Gravity and conformal field theories are very different in many aspects and the fact that they could be mapped to each other opens many possibilities for new insights. For instance, an important open problem in gravity is the evaporation of black holes. Although nothing can escape a black hole classically, Hawking showed that if quantum effects are taken into account, black holes radiate particles like a black body at a given temperature. The particles take away energy and the black hole shrinks, eventually evaporating completely. This raises the question of what happened to matter that went into the black hole. Quantum mechanics has a property named unitarity that states that ordinary matter cannot turn into incoherent radiation, so this raises the question of how it could happen in an evaporating black hole. In the AdS/CFT picture, since the evaporating black hole would be mapped to a conformal field theory that is unitary, that would provide a way to study quantum mechanically how matter turns into incoherent radiation.

Several authors have connected the AdS/CFT conjecture to a mathematical construction known as tensor networks that is commonly used in quantum information theory. Tensor networks have several points in common with the spin networks that are the quantum states of gravity in loop quantum gravity. This talk spells out in detail how to make a correspondence between the states of loop quantum gravity and the tensor networks, basically corresponding to a coarse graining or averaging at certain scales of the states of quantum gravity. This opens the possibility of connecting results from AdS/CFT with results in loop quantum gravity. In particular the so-called Ryu-Takahashi formula for the entropy of a region can be arrived from in the context of loop quantum gravity.

## Wednesday, January 25, 2017

### Symmetries and representations in Group Field Theory

Tuesday, January 24th

PDF of the talk (1M)

Audio+Slides [.mp4 11MB]

by Jorge Pullin, Louisiana State University

In loop quantum gravity the quantum states are labeled by loops, more precisely by graphs formed by lines that intersect at vertices and that are “colored”, meaning each line is associated with an integer. They are known as "spin networks". As the states evolve in time these graphs "sweep" surfaces in four dimensional space-time constituting what is known as a “spin foam”. This is a representation of a quantum space-time in loop quantum gravity. The spin foams connect an initial spin network with a final one and the formalism gives a probability for such “transition” from a given spatial geometry to a future spatial geometry to occur. The picture that emerges has some parallel with ordinary particle physics in which particles transition from initial to final states, but also some differences.

However, it was found that one could construct ordinary quantum field theories such that the transition probabilities of them coincided with those stemming from spin foams connecting initial to final spatial geometries in loop quantum gravity. This talk concerns itself with such quantum field theories, known generically as Group Field Theories (GFTs). The talk covered two main aspects of them: symmetries and representations.

Symmetries are important in that they may provide mathematical tools to solve the equations of the theory and identify conserved quantities in it. There is a lot of experience with symmetries in local field theories, but GFT’s are non-local, which adds challenges. Ordinary quantum field theories are formulated starting by a quantity known as the action, which is an integral on a domain. A symmetry is defined as a map of the points of such domain and of the fields that leaves the integral invariant. In GFTs the action is a sum of integrals on different domains. A symmetry is defined as a collections of maps acting on the domains and fields that leave invariant each integral in the sum. An important theorem of great generality stretching from classical mechanics to quantum field theory is Noether’s theorem, that connects symmetries with conserved quantities. The above notion of symmetry for GFTs allows to introduce a Noether’s theorem for them. The theorem could find applicability in a variety of situations, in particular certain relations that were noted between GFTs and recoupling theory and better understand various models based on GFTs.

In a quantum theory like GFTs the quantum states structure themselves into a mathematical set known as Hilbert space. The observable quantities of the theory are represented as operators acting on such space. Hilbert spaces are generically infinite dimensional and this introduces a series of technicalities both in their own definition and in the definition of observables for quantum theories. In particular one can find different families of inequivalent operators related to the same physical observables. This is what is known as different representations of the algebra of observables. Algebra in this context means that one can compose observables to form either new observables or linear combinations of known observables. An important type of representation in quantum field theory is known as Fock representation. It is the representation on which ordinary particles are based. Another type of representations is the condensate representation which, instead of particles, describes their collective (excitations) behaviour and is very convenient for systems with large (infinite) number of particles. A discussion of Fock and condensate like representations in the context of GFTs was presented and the issue of when representations are equivalent or not was also addressed.

Future work looks at generalizing the notion of symmetries presented to find further non-standard symmetries of GFTs. Also investigating “anomalies”. This is when one has a symmetry in the classical theory that may not survive upon quantization. The notion of symmetry can also be used to define an idea of “ground state” or fundamental state of the theory. In ordinary quantum field theory in flat space-time this is done by seeking the state with lower energy. In the context of GFTs one will invoke more complicated notions of symmetries to define the ground state. Several other results of ordinary field theories, like the spin statistics theorem, may be generalizable to the GFT context using the ideas presented in this talk.

**Alexander Kegeles, Albert Einstein Institute****Title: Field theoretical aspects of GFT: symmetries and representations**PDF of the talk (1M)

Audio+Slides [.mp4 11MB]

by Jorge Pullin, Louisiana State University

In loop quantum gravity the quantum states are labeled by loops, more precisely by graphs formed by lines that intersect at vertices and that are “colored”, meaning each line is associated with an integer. They are known as "spin networks". As the states evolve in time these graphs "sweep" surfaces in four dimensional space-time constituting what is known as a “spin foam”. This is a representation of a quantum space-time in loop quantum gravity. The spin foams connect an initial spin network with a final one and the formalism gives a probability for such “transition” from a given spatial geometry to a future spatial geometry to occur. The picture that emerges has some parallel with ordinary particle physics in which particles transition from initial to final states, but also some differences.

However, it was found that one could construct ordinary quantum field theories such that the transition probabilities of them coincided with those stemming from spin foams connecting initial to final spatial geometries in loop quantum gravity. This talk concerns itself with such quantum field theories, known generically as Group Field Theories (GFTs). The talk covered two main aspects of them: symmetries and representations.

Symmetries are important in that they may provide mathematical tools to solve the equations of the theory and identify conserved quantities in it. There is a lot of experience with symmetries in local field theories, but GFT’s are non-local, which adds challenges. Ordinary quantum field theories are formulated starting by a quantity known as the action, which is an integral on a domain. A symmetry is defined as a map of the points of such domain and of the fields that leaves the integral invariant. In GFTs the action is a sum of integrals on different domains. A symmetry is defined as a collections of maps acting on the domains and fields that leave invariant each integral in the sum. An important theorem of great generality stretching from classical mechanics to quantum field theory is Noether’s theorem, that connects symmetries with conserved quantities. The above notion of symmetry for GFTs allows to introduce a Noether’s theorem for them. The theorem could find applicability in a variety of situations, in particular certain relations that were noted between GFTs and recoupling theory and better understand various models based on GFTs.

In a quantum theory like GFTs the quantum states structure themselves into a mathematical set known as Hilbert space. The observable quantities of the theory are represented as operators acting on such space. Hilbert spaces are generically infinite dimensional and this introduces a series of technicalities both in their own definition and in the definition of observables for quantum theories. In particular one can find different families of inequivalent operators related to the same physical observables. This is what is known as different representations of the algebra of observables. Algebra in this context means that one can compose observables to form either new observables or linear combinations of known observables. An important type of representation in quantum field theory is known as Fock representation. It is the representation on which ordinary particles are based. Another type of representations is the condensate representation which, instead of particles, describes their collective (excitations) behaviour and is very convenient for systems with large (infinite) number of particles. A discussion of Fock and condensate like representations in the context of GFTs was presented and the issue of when representations are equivalent or not was also addressed.

Future work looks at generalizing the notion of symmetries presented to find further non-standard symmetries of GFTs. Also investigating “anomalies”. This is when one has a symmetry in the classical theory that may not survive upon quantization. The notion of symmetry can also be used to define an idea of “ground state” or fundamental state of the theory. In ordinary quantum field theory in flat space-time this is done by seeking the state with lower energy. In the context of GFTs one will invoke more complicated notions of symmetries to define the ground state. Several other results of ordinary field theories, like the spin statistics theorem, may be generalizable to the GFT context using the ideas presented in this talk.

## Friday, March 11, 2016

### Symmetry reductions in loop quantum gravity

Tuesday, Dec. 8th

**Norbert Bodendorfer, Univ. Warsaw**

**Title: Quantum symmetry reductions based on classical gauge fixings**

PDF of the talk (1.4MB)

Audio [.wav 35MB]

YouTube.

Tuesday, Nov. 10th

**Jedrzej Swiezewski, Univ. Warsaw**

**Title: Developments on the radial gauge**

PDF of the talk (4MB)

Audio [.mp3 40MB]

by Steffen Gielen, Imperial College

A few months ago, physicists around the world celebrated the centenary of the field equations of
general relativity, presented by Einstein to the Prussian Academy of Sciences in November 1915.
Arriving at the correct equations was the culmination of an incredible intellectual effort by Einstein,
driven largely by mathematical requirements that the new theory of gravitation (superseding
Newton's theory of gravitation, which proved ultimately incomplete) should satisfy. In particular,
Einstein realized that its field equations should be generally covariant – they should take the same
general form in any coordinate system that one chooses to use for the calculation, say whether one
uses Cartesian, cylindrical, or spherical coordinates. This property sets the equations of general
relativity apart from Newton's laws of motion, where changing coordinate system can lead to the
appearance of additional “forces” such as centripetal or Coriolis forces.

Many conferences were held honoring the anniversary of Einstein's achievement. What was discussed at those conferences was partially the historical context, the beauty of the form of the equations, or the precise mathematical and conceptual significance of general covariance. However, the most important legacy of general relativity and the main inspiration for modern research have been the new physical phenomena that appear in general relativity but not in Newtonian gravity: black holes are regions of spacetime where gravity becomes so strong that not even light can escape; the strong gravitational field outside a black hole leads to a time dilation so strong that an hour nearby a black hole can correspond to years on Earth, as used recently in the film Interstellar; and we now believe that the universe as a whole is expanding, and has been since the Big Bang which is thought of as the beginning of space and time.

In order to understand these dramatic consequences of the Einstein equations, physicists had to find solutions to these equations. This is rather challenging in general: the Einstein equations are complicated differential equations for ten functions, depending on one time and three space dimensions, that encode the gravitational field of spacetime. Furthermore, the conceptually appealing property of general covariance means that apparently different solutions of the equations can be simply the same physical configuration looked at in different coordinates. Indeed, both issues – finding solutions to the equations at all and understanding their meaning – were challenges in the early days of the theory, when physicists tried to make sense of Einstein's equations.

Despite this formidable challenge, the Prussian lieutenant of the artillery Karl Schwarzschild, while serving on the Eastern front in World War I, was able to derive an exact solution of Einstein's equations in vacuum within weeks of their publication, much to the surprise of Einstein himself. This solution, now called the Schwarzschild solution, describes a black hole, and is one of the most important solutions of general relativity. What Schwarzschild did in order to solve the equations was to assume a symmetry of the solution: he assumed that the configuration of the gravitational field should be spherically symmetric. In spherical coordinates, where each point in space is specified by one radial and two angular coordinates, it should be independent of any change in the angular directions. This means that one describes space as a collection of regular, concentric spheres. What Schwarzschild found was that the spheres did not have to be glued together to simply give normal flat space, but one could form a curved geometry out of them, with curvature increasing as one heads towards the centre (eventually forming a black hole), while still solving Einstein's equations. To be able to do the calculation, Schwarzschild had to choose a particularly suitable coordinate system, hence exploiting the property of general covariance in his favor.

This strategy of finding solutions is typical for practitioners of general relativity: cosmological solutions could similarly be found by assuming that the universe looks exactly the same at each point and in each direction in space (in mathematical terms, it is homogeneous and isotropic), and only changes in time. This reduces the problem of solving Einstein equations to a much simpler task, and explicit solutions could be written down, again in a suitable coordinate system. These simplest solutions already exhibit the main features of our universe (overall expansion and an initial Big Bang singularity) and are fairly realistic – indeed our Universe seems to display only small variations between different large-scale regions, and at the very largest scales is, within an approximation, well described by a geometry that simply looks the same everywhere in space.

Many conferences were held honoring the anniversary of Einstein's achievement. What was discussed at those conferences was partially the historical context, the beauty of the form of the equations, or the precise mathematical and conceptual significance of general covariance. However, the most important legacy of general relativity and the main inspiration for modern research have been the new physical phenomena that appear in general relativity but not in Newtonian gravity: black holes are regions of spacetime where gravity becomes so strong that not even light can escape; the strong gravitational field outside a black hole leads to a time dilation so strong that an hour nearby a black hole can correspond to years on Earth, as used recently in the film Interstellar; and we now believe that the universe as a whole is expanding, and has been since the Big Bang which is thought of as the beginning of space and time.

In order to understand these dramatic consequences of the Einstein equations, physicists had to find solutions to these equations. This is rather challenging in general: the Einstein equations are complicated differential equations for ten functions, depending on one time and three space dimensions, that encode the gravitational field of spacetime. Furthermore, the conceptually appealing property of general covariance means that apparently different solutions of the equations can be simply the same physical configuration looked at in different coordinates. Indeed, both issues – finding solutions to the equations at all and understanding their meaning – were challenges in the early days of the theory, when physicists tried to make sense of Einstein's equations.

Despite this formidable challenge, the Prussian lieutenant of the artillery Karl Schwarzschild, while serving on the Eastern front in World War I, was able to derive an exact solution of Einstein's equations in vacuum within weeks of their publication, much to the surprise of Einstein himself. This solution, now called the Schwarzschild solution, describes a black hole, and is one of the most important solutions of general relativity. What Schwarzschild did in order to solve the equations was to assume a symmetry of the solution: he assumed that the configuration of the gravitational field should be spherically symmetric. In spherical coordinates, where each point in space is specified by one radial and two angular coordinates, it should be independent of any change in the angular directions. This means that one describes space as a collection of regular, concentric spheres. What Schwarzschild found was that the spheres did not have to be glued together to simply give normal flat space, but one could form a curved geometry out of them, with curvature increasing as one heads towards the centre (eventually forming a black hole), while still solving Einstein's equations. To be able to do the calculation, Schwarzschild had to choose a particularly suitable coordinate system, hence exploiting the property of general covariance in his favor.

This strategy of finding solutions is typical for practitioners of general relativity: cosmological solutions could similarly be found by assuming that the universe looks exactly the same at each point and in each direction in space (in mathematical terms, it is homogeneous and isotropic), and only changes in time. This reduces the problem of solving Einstein equations to a much simpler task, and explicit solutions could be written down, again in a suitable coordinate system. These simplest solutions already exhibit the main features of our universe (overall expansion and an initial Big Bang singularity) and are fairly realistic – indeed our Universe seems to display only small variations between different large-scale regions, and at the very largest scales is, within an approximation, well described by a geometry that simply looks the same everywhere in space.

Loop quantum gravity is an approach at a quantization of general relativity, aiming to extend general relativity by making it compatible with quantum mechanics. What distinguishes it from other approaches is that the main property of general relativity, general covariance, is taken as a central guiding principle towards the construction of a quantum theory. In some respects, the status of loop quantum gravity can be compared to the early days of general relativity: while it is now known that a quantum theory compatible with general covariance can be constructed, and its mathematical structure is well understood, one now needs to understand the new physical phenomena implied by the quantization, beyond general relativity. Just as in the time after November 1915, today's physicists should find explicit solutions to the equations of loop quantum gravity that can be used to study the physical implications of the (relatively) new framework.

One of the main successes of loop quantum gravity has been its application to cosmology. Homogeneous solutions of the Einstein equations that approximately describe our universe have been shown to receive modifications once loop quantum gravity techniques are used, leading to a resolution of the Big Bang singularity by a Big Bounce, and potentially observable quantum effects. However, the resulting models of the universe are not solutions of the full theory of loop quantum gravity: rather, they arise from quantization of a reduced set of solutions of classical general relativity with loop quantum gravity techniques. There is no reason, in general, to expect that these are exact solutions of loop quantum gravity. Quantum mechanics is funny: quantization can lead to many inequivalent theories, depending on how one decides to do it. By assuming that the universe is homogeneous from the outset, one obtains a quantum theory of only a finite, rather than an infinite number of “degrees of freedom”. It is well known that quantum theories can behave differently depending on whether they have a finite or infinite number of degrees of freedom.

In their ILQGS seminars, Jedrzej and Norbert presented work towards resolving this tension. Namely, they presented an approach in which, similar to how Schwarzschild and contemporaries proceeded 100 years ago, one identifies a suitable coordinate system in which the spacetime metric, representing the gravitational field, is represented. In a quantum theory where general covariance is implemented fundamentally, this means one has to perform a “gauge-fixing”; the freedom of changing the coordinate system must be “fixed” consistently in the quantum theory. Gauge-fixings mean that one works with fewer variables, and has to worry less about different but physically equivalent solutions that are only related by changes in the coordinate system. Achieving them is often quite hard technically. Together with collaborators in Warsaw, Jedrzej and Norbert have made progress on this issue in recent years.

The second step, after a convenient coordinate system (think of spherical coordinates for treating the Schwarzschild black hole) has been chosen, is to do a “symmetry reduction” in the full quantum theory: rather than on the most general quantum universes, one now focusses on those that have a certain symmetry property. Norbert showed a detailed strategy for how to do this. One identifies an equation satisfied by all classical solutions with the desired symmetry, such as isotropy (i.e. looking the same in all directions). The quantum version of this equation is then imposed in loop quantum gravity, leading to a full quantum definition of symmetries like “isotropy” or “spherical symmetry” in loop quantum gravity. The obvious applications of the mechanism, which are being explored at the moment, are identifying cosmological and black hole solutions in loop quantum gravity, studying their dynamics, and verifying whether the resulting effects are in accord with what has been found in the simpler finite-dimensional quantum models described above. In particular, one would like to know whether singularities inside black holes and at the Big Bang, where Einstein's theory simply breaks down, can be resolved by quantum mechanics, as is hoped.

Jedrzej also showed how the methods developed in different “gauge-fixings” for classical general
relativity could be used to resolve a disputed issue in the context of the AdS/CFT correspondence in
string theory, where one faces a similar problem of fixing the huge freedom under changes in the
coordinate system in order to identify the invariant physical properties of spacetime. In particular, a
certain choice of gauge-fixing has been discussed in AdS/CFT, which leads to unfamiliar
consequences such as non-locality in the gauge-fixed version of the theory. The tools developed by
Jedrzej and collaborators could be used to clarify precisely how this non-locality occurs. They
hence provide a somewhat unusual example of the application of methods developed for loop
quantum gravity in a string theory-motivated context, clearly a positive example that can inspire
more work on closer connections between methods used in these different communities.

## Monday, May 25, 2015

### Separability and quantum mechanics

Tuesday, Apr 21st

**Fernando Barbero, CSIC, Madrid**

**Title: Separability and quantum mechanics**

PDF of the talk (758k)

Audio [.wav 20MB]

by Juan Margalef-Bentabol, UC3M-CSIC, Madrid

## Classical vs Quantum: Two views of the world

In classical mechanics it is relatively straightforward to get information from a system. For instance, if we have a bunch of particles moving around, we can ask ourselves: where is its center of mass? What is the average speed of the particles? What is the distance between two of them? In order to ask and answer such questions in a precise mathematical way, we need to know all the positions and velocities of the system at every moment; in the usual jargon, we need to know the dynamics over the state space (also called configuration space for positions and velocities, or phase space when we consider positions and momenta). For example, the appropriate way to ask for the center of mass, is given by the function that for a specific state of the system, gives the weighted mean of the positions of all the particles. Also, the total momentum of the system is given by the function consisting of the sum of the momenta of the individual particles. Such functions are called**observables**of the theory, therefore an observable is defined as a function that takes all the positions and momenta, and returns a real number. Among all the observables there are some ones that can be considered as

**fundamental**. A familiar example is provided by the generalized position and momenta denoted as and .

In a quantum setting answering, and even asking, such questions is however much trickier. It can be properly justified that the needed classical ingredients have to be significantly changed:

- The state space is now much more complicated, instead of positions and velocities/momenta we need a (usually infinite dimensional) complex vector space with an inner product that is complete. Such vector space is called a Hilbert space and the vectors of are called states (up to a complex multiplication).
- The observables are functions from to itself that "behave well" with respect to the inner product (these are called self-adjoint operators). Notice in particular that the outputs of the quantum observables are complex vectors and not numbers anymore!
- In a physical experiment we do obtain real numbers, so somehow we need to retrieve them from the observable associated with the experiment. The way to do this is by looking at the
**spectrum**of , which consists of a set of real numbers called eigenvalues associated with some vectors called eigenvectors (actually the number that we obtain is a probability amplitude whose absolute value squared is the probability of obtaining as an output a specific eigenvector).

**fundamental**observables analogous to the ones of classical mechanics? In order to answer these questions we need to take a small detour and talk a little bit about the algebra of observables.

## Algebra of Observables

Given two classical observables, we can construct another one by means of different methods. Some important ones are:- By adding them (they are real functions)
- By multiplying them
- By a more sophisticated procedure called the Poisson bracket

One of the best approaches to construct a quantum theory associated with a classical one, is to reproduce at the quantum level some features of its classical formulation. One way to do this is to define a Lie algebra for the

**quantum**observables such that some of such observables mimic the behavior of the Poisson bracket of some

**classical**fundamental observables. This procedure (modulo some technicalities) is known as finding a representation of this algebra. In order to do this, one has to choose:

- A Hilbert space .
- Some fundamental observables that reproduce the canonical commutation relations when we consider the commutator of operators.

## Separability

One of the hypotheses of the Stone-von Neumann theorem is that the Hilbert space must be**separable**. This means that it is possible to find a

**countable**set of orthonormal vectors in (called Hilbert basis) such that any state -vector- of can be written as an appropriate countable sum of them. A separable Hilbert space, despite being infinite dimensional, is not "too big", in the sense that there are Hilbert spaces with uncountable bases that are genuinely larger. The separability assumption seems natural for standard quantum mechanics, but in the case of quantum field theory -with infinitely many degrees of freedom- one might expect to need much larger Hilbert spaces i.e. non separable ones. Somewhat surprisingly, most of the quantum field theories can be handled with our beloved and "simple" separable Hilbert spaces with the remarkable exception of LQG (and its derivative LQC) where non separability plays a significant role. Henceforth it seems interesting to understand what happens when one considers non separable Hilbert spaces [3] in the realm of the quantum world. A natural and obvious way to acquire the necessary intuition is by first considering quantum mechanics on a non-separable Hilbert space.

## The Polymeric Harmonic Oscillator

The authors of [2,3] discuss two inequivalent (among the infinitely many) representations of the algebra of fundamental observables which share a non familiar feature, namely, in one of them (called the position representation) the position observable is well defined but the momentum observable**does not even exist**; in the momentum representation the roles of positions and momenta are exchanged. Notice that in this setting, some familiar features of quantum mechanics are lost for good. For instance, the position-momentum Heisenberg uncertainty formula makes no sense at all as both position and momentum observables need to be defined.

To improve the understanding of such systems and gain some insight for the application to LQG and LQC, the authors of [1] (re)study the -dimensional Harmonic Oscillator (PHO) in a non separable Hilbert space (known in this context as a polymeric Hilbert space). As the space is non separable, any Hilbert basis should be uncountable. This leads to some unexpected behaviors that can be used to obtain exotic representations of the algebra of fundamental observables.

The motivation to study the PHO is kind of the same as always: the HO, in addition to being an excellent toy model, is a good approximation to any 1-dimensional mechanical system close to its equilibrium points. Furthermore, free quantum field theories can be thought of as ensembles of infinitely many independent HO's. There are however many ways to generalize the HO to a non separable Hilbert space and also many equivalent ways to realize a concrete representation, for instance by using Hilbert spaces based on:

- the Bohr compactification of the real line.
- the Besicovitch almost periodic functions.
- constructions that generalize the usual separable Hilbert spaces based on sequences ( spaces).

As we have already mentioned, the orthonormal bases in non separable Hilbert spaces are uncountable. A consequence of this is the fact that the orthonormal basis provided by the eigenstates of the Hamiltonian must be uncountable, i.e. the Hamiltonian must have an uncountable infinity worth of eigenvalues (counted with multiplicity). A somewhat unexpected result that can be proved by invoking classical theorems on functional analysis in non-separable Hilbert spaces is the fact that these eigenvalues are gathered in bands. It is important to point out here that only the lowest-lying part of the spectrum is expected to mimic reasonably well the one corresponding to the standard HO, however it is important to keep also in mind the huge difference that persists: even the narrowest bands contain a continuum of eigenvalues.

## Some physical consequences

The fact that the spectrum of the polymerized harmonic oscillator displays this band structure is relevant for some applications of polymerized quantum mechanics. Two main issues were mentioned in the talk. On one hand the statistical mechanics of polymerized systems must be handled with due care. Owing to the features of the spectrum, the counting of energy eigenstates necessary to compute the entropy in the microcanonical ensemble is ill defined. A similar problem crops up when computing the partition function of the canonical ensemble. These problems can probably be circumvented by using an appropriate regularization and also by relying on some superselection rules that eliminate all but a countable subset of energy eigenstates of the system.A setting where something similar can be done is in the polymer quantization of the scalar field (already considered by Husain, Pawłowski and collaborators). As this system can be thought of as an infinite ensemble of harmonic oscillators, the specific features of their (polymer) quantization will play a significant role. A way to avoid some difficulties here also relies on the elimination of unwanted energy eigenvalues by imposing superselection rules as long as they can be physically justified.

## Bibliography

[1] J.F. Barbero G., J. Prieto and E.J.S. Villaseñor,*Band structure in the polymer quantization of the harmonic oscillator*, Class. Quantum Grav.

**30**(2013) 165011.

[2] W. Chojnacki,

*Spectral analysis of Schrodinger operators in non-separable Hilbert spaces*, Rend. Circ. Mat. Palermo (2),

**Suppl. 17**(1987) 135–51.

[3] H. Halvorson,

*Complementarity of representations in quantum mechanics*, Stud. Hist. Phil. Mod. Phys.

**35**(2004) 45-56.

## Tuesday, May 5, 2015

### Cosmology with group field theory condensates

Tuesday, Feb 24th

PDF of the talk (136K)

Audio [.wav 39MB]

by Mercedes Martín-Benito, Rabdoud University

**Steffen Gielen, Imperial College****Title: Cosmology with group field theory condensates**PDF of the talk (136K)

Audio [.wav 39MB]

by Mercedes Martín-Benito, Rabdoud University

One of the most important open questions in physics is how gravity (or in other words, the geometry of spacetime) behaves when the energy densities are huge, of the order of the Planck density. Our most reliable theory of gravity, general relativity, fails to describe the gravitational phenomena in high energy density regimes, as it generically leads to singularities. These regimes are achieved for example at the origin of the universe or in the interior of black holes, and therefore we do not have yet a consistent explanation for these phenomena. We expect quantum gravity effects to be important in such situations, but general relativity, being a theory that treats the geometry of the spacetime as classical, do not take those quantum gravity effects into account. Thus, in order to describe black holes or the very early universe in a physically meaningful way it seems unavoidable to quantize gravity.

The quantization of gravity not only requires attaining a mathematically well-described theory with predictive power, but also the comparison of the predictions with observations to check that they agree. The regimes where quantum gravity plays a fundamental role, such as black holes or the early universe, might seem very far from our observational or experimental reach. Nevertheless, thanks to the big progress that precision cosmology has undergone in the last decades, in the near future we may be able to get observational data about the very initial instants of the universe that could be sensitive to quantum gravity effects. We need to get prepared for that, putting our quantum gravity theories at work in order to extract cosmological predictions from them.

This is the main goal of Steffen's analysis. He bases his research in the approach to quantum gravity known as Group Field Theory (GFT). GFT defines a path integral for gravity, namely, it replaces the classical notion of unique solution for the geometry of the spacetime with a sum over an infinity of possibilities to compute a quantum amplitude. The formalism that it uses is pretty much like the usual quantum field theory formalism employed in particle physics. There, given a process involving particles, the different possible interactions contributing to that process are described by so-called Feynman diagrams, that are later summed up in a consistent way to finally lead to the transition amplitude of the process that we are trying to describe. GFT follows that strategy. The corresponding Feynman diagrams are spinfoams, and represent the different dynamical processes that contribute to a particular spacetime configuration. GFT is thus linked to Loop Quantum Gravity (GFT), since spinfoams are one main proposal for defining the dynamics of LQG. The GFT Feynman expansion extends and completes this definition of the LQG dynamics by trying to determine how these diagrams must be summed up in a controlled way to obtain the corresponding quantum amplitude.

GFT is a fundamentally discrete theory, with a large number of microscopical degrees of freedom. These degrees of freedom might organize themselves, following somehow a collective behavior, to lead to different phases of the theory. The hope is to find a phase that in the continuum limit agrees with having a smooth spacetime as described by the classical theory of general relativity. In this way, we would make the link between the underlying quantum theory and the classical one that explains very well the gravitational phenomena in regimes where quantum gravity effects are negligible. To understand this, let us make the analogy with a more familiar theory: Hydrodynamics.

We know that the fundamental microscopical constituents of a fluid are molecules. The dynamics of this micro-constituents is intrinsically quantum, however these degrees of freedom display a collective behavior that leads to macroscopic properties of the fluid, such as its density, its velocity, etc. In order to study these properties it is enough to apply the classical theory of hydrodynamics. However we know that it is not the fundamental theory describing the fluid, but an effective description coming from an underlying quantum theory (condense matter theory) that explains how the atoms form the molecules, and how these interact among themselves giving rise to the fluid.

The continuum spacetime that we are used to might emerge, in a similar way to the example of the fluid, from the collective behavior of many many quantum building blocks, or atoms of spacetime. This is, in plane words, the point of view employed in the GFT approach to quantum gravity.

While GFT is still under construction, it is mature enough to try to extract physics from it. With this aim, Steffen and his collaborators, are working in obtaining effective dynamics for cosmology starting from the general framework of GFT. The simplest solutions of Einstein equations are those with spatial homogeneity. These turn out to describe cosmological solutions, which approximate rather well at large scales the dynamics of our universe. Then, in order to get effective cosmological equations from their GFT, they postulate very particular quantum states that, involving all the degrees of freedom of the GFT, are states with collective properties that can give rise to a homogeneous and continuum effective description. The similarities between GFT and condense matter physics allows Steffen and collaborators to exploit the techniques developed in condense matter. In particular, based on the experience on Bose-Einstein condensates, the states that they postulate can be seen as condensates.

The collective behavior that the degrees of freedom display leads, in fact, to a homogeneous description in the macroscopic limit. The effective equations that they obtain agree in the classical limit with cosmological equations, but remarkably retaining the main effects coming from the underlying quantum theory. More specifically, these effective equations know about the fundamental discreteness, as they explicitly get corrections (non-present in the standard classical equations) that depend on the number of quanta (spacetime “atoms”) in the condensate. These results form the basis of a general programme for extracting effective cosmological dynamics directly from a microscopic non-perturbative theory of quantum gravity.

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